1873: Thurston’s new constitution: “Even old beachcombers saw the 1870s as the white mans’ age….

“Even old beachcombers saw the 1870s as the white mans’ age…. in the days of Cakobau’s kingdom – from 1871 to 1875 – Levuka was the major European social and polical hub, as race-war loomed.
Ma’afu signed arms contract: The watchful Royal Navy dwarfed the cutters and schooners, and white residents who stood appalled …. in 1873, at the prospect of Fijian control under Chief Secretary Thurston’s new constitution, (and ) discovered that their suppose(d) ally, the Viceroy ‘Enele Ma’aful’atuitonga” had profound limitations as man of action. … Just before, Ma’afu signed the arms contract ( … and?… ) had sailed into port to announce his defection about his yacht Xariffa ,  sometime the property of the absconding Sydney business man, S.C Burt, Cakaobau’s business agent in matters like hiring out labour and member of his first cabinet”.
p 141.
1870: Cakobau’s kingdom – 1870 – 1875 – Race war in Levuka
Scarr, Deryck A history of the Pacific Islands Ch 12, Power, Labour, Production, Output, and Identity: The Fiji Case 1871 – 1919
http://books.google.com/books?id=xmtWaIpX-zYC&pg=RA1-PA143&lpg=RA1-PA143&dq=%22William+kopsen%22+fiji&source=bl&ots=X_9R-9g445&sig=f1fwkbEvmwEV8b4OGI9LzOJu5NQ&hl=en&ei=Fkb2Sdv0GomBkQWqyYT1Cg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4#PRA1-PA141,M1

November, 1869: Suva lands declared “open for settlement” by The Polynesia Company,

The Polynesia Company, Limited, having been formed, issued its regulations in November, 1869, under which land warrants were to be issued to shareholders entitling them to “select” lands in districts declared by the Company “open for settlement”. The Suva lands were declared open for settlement. No shareholder might make more than one frontage selection in the Suva district; and any selection with a sea frontage was limited to 160 acres.

HEIRS OF JOHN B. WILLIAMS (UNITED STATES) v. GREAT BRITAIN (Fijian Land Claim*. November 0, 1923, Pages 606-611.) Cession Of Sovereignty, Annexation : Private Property Rights Acquired Previous To.Interpretation Of (“Primitive) Municipal Law. Reports Of International Arbitral Awards Recueil Des Sentences Arbitrales Benson Robert Henry (United States) V. Great Britain (Fijian Land Claims) 2 November 1923 Volume Vi Pp. 100-104 http:..www.untreaty.un.org/cod/riaa/cases/vol_VI/100-104_Benson.pdf

July 13, 1869: First half of Cakobau debt paid by Polynesia Company: 27,000 acres sold

July 13, 1869 : These instalments were, in fact, paid by the Polynesia Company, Limited, on July 13, 1869, and on November 19, 1870, respectively.
Nine other chiefs and landowners sign: By a deed dated July 13, 1869, Cakobau and one Natika, with the ratification and confirmation of nine other chiefs and landowners, who also signed, conveyed to the Polynesia Company, Limited, certain lands at Suva to the extent of about 27,000 acres, wherein were included the 480 acres in respect of which this claim for compensation is made.

HEIRS OF JOHN B. WILLIAMS (UNITED STATES) v. GREAT BRITAIN (Fijian Land Claim*. November 0, 1923, Pages 606-611.) Cession Of Sovereignty, Annexation : Private Property Rights Acquired Previous To.Interpretation Of (“Primitive) Municipal Law. Reports Of International Arbitral Awards Recueil Des Sentences Arbitrales Benson Robert Henry (United States) V. Great Britain (Fijian Land Claims) 2 November 1923 Volume Vi Pp. 100-104 http://www.untreaty.un.org/cod/riaa/cases/vol_VI/100-104_Benson.pdf

July 23, 1868: Polynesia Company gets 200,000 acres of land, including Suva from Cakobau and six principal chiefs

In 1868 two gentlemen, by name Brewer and Evans, arrived in Fiji from Melbourne as agents for the Polynesia Company, Limited, of Melbourne, then about to be formed.
Polynesia Company agrees to pay debt:
On July 23, 1868 a charter was granted them, as such agents, by Cakobau, who is chief signatory, with the ratification and confirmation of six principal chiefs under Cakobau.
The deal: By the material portion of that charter, Brewer and Evans undertook on behalf of the said company to provide for the payment of the compensation, already referred to, to the United States of America; and, in consideration thereof, Cakobau ceded, granted, and transferred to Brewer and Evans as trustees for the said proposed company about 200,000 acres of land as specified in the schedule.
Sells Suva to Polynesia Company: Paragraph 4 of the schedule is as follows : “4. Also Suva, its harbour, territories, and district, commencing from Lami, running along the coast towards Rewa, to the township of Kalabo, and running inland to the Waimanu” (memorial, p. 259). The lands so described include those in respect of which Henry’s claim arises.This charter was accompanied by the following agreement: “The Company agree not to alienate any of the land until the whole of the American debt is paid. Should the amount not be paid within the time specified in the agreement of the Company with Dr. Brewer, the land reverts to King Thakombau” (memorial, p. 259).
Debt paid in two parts: On the following day, July 24, Evans and Brewer executed an agreement under seal, by which they undertook to pay the balance of the compensation due from Cakobau to the uv, the first instalment on their return to Melbourne, the second and final instalment on or before July 24, 1869.

HEIRS OF JOHN B. WILLIAMS (UNITED STATES) v. GREAT BRITAIN (Fijian Land Claim*. November 0, 1923, Pages 606-611.) Cession Of Sovereignty, Annexation : Private Property Rights Acquired Previous To.Interpretation Of (“Primitive) Municipal Law. Reports Of International Arbitral Awards Recueil Des Sentences Arbitrales Benson Robert Henry (United States) V. Great Britain (Fijian Land Claims) 2 November 1923 Volume Vi Pp. 100-104 http://www.untreaty.un.org/cod/riaa/cases/vol_VI/100-104_Benson.pdf

1860: Lt. Col. W. T. Smythe visited Levuka and questioned Cakobau’s claim to be king of Fiji

Colonel Smythe was sent by the British government as a special commissioner to report on the suitability of Fiji as a naval and coaling station and for the cultivation of cotton. The journey was made as a consequence of the Fijian Kings (Cacobau)  first offer of annexation in exchange for payment of his debt to the United States. Smythe recommended against annexation but advised that the British consul should be invested with full magisterial powers over the British subjects there.
Smythe, Mrs. Ten months in the Fiji Islands / by Mrs. Smythe ; with an introduction and appendix by Colonel W.J. Smythe. (Oxford : J.H. & J. Parker, 1864)

1870: Cotton boom ends, chaos rises: government needed: planters of Lau, German with business interests in Tonga, wanted Ma’afu; the men of Western Fiji preferred Cakobau

On June 5th, 1871, Cakobau was proclaimed King of Fiji at a ceremony in Levuka. This event followed a period of chaos created by the sudden fall in the value of cotton. Derrick, in his “History of Fiji” (p.196), says, “With the rapid increase of the foreign population the need for government became more urgent. A leading article in the ‘Fiji Times’ of 15th January, 1870, compared the creditable manner in which the natives governed themselves with the lack of control among the Europeans; ‘It is not the natives we want the Government for, but ourselves,’ the article affirmed; and it went on to urge the need of protection for homes and families.

Government plan: In its next issue the paper suggested that a committee be set up to recommend a suitable form of government. A meeting was held as arranged, and was largely attended. Though the meeting agreed that some form of Government was necessary, there was a difference of opinion about who should be the native head of the administration.

Planters backed Ma’afu: The planters of Lau, who were principally German, with business interests in Tonga, wanted Ma’afu; the men of Western Fiji preferred Cakobau. On this question, and on the manner in which revenue should be handled, no agreement was reached; and after appointing a committee to draft a constitution, to be submitted to delegates, the meeting broke up.”

Fall in cotton values spread dismay among the settlers: That meeting was on the 14th April, 1870, when everything from the planters’ angle seemed happy enough, but the sudden fall of France and the subsequent fall in cotton values spread dismay among the settlers generally.

Bankrupt in the midst of chaos: Many of the planters were men of education, some from the Forces, men of character, faced with bankruptcy in the midst of chaos. Concern for so many from Australia prompted politicians in Australia to urge the United Kingdom to annex the Group, but it was certain that the United Kingdom had no interest in the matter.

coup d’etat was launched: With dramatic suddenness a coup d’etat was launched, led by ex-Lieutenant George Austin Woods, the newly arrived marine surveyor.

1854: Captain Frederick Howard – log of HMS ‘Herald’, in Levuka harbour for two months; read Articles of War to crew, hosts Cakobau with 10-gun salute

 29th September 1854, Levuka Harbour
AM

2.30 Observed the centre of Ovalau WNW. Hove to set spanker
4.0 Wore hove to. Centre of Ovalau NW by W
5.45 Filled
6.50 Wore
8.0 Bore up for entrance of reef, set courses and topgallant sails
9.30 Furled courses in topgallant sails standing through the Southern entrance to Levuka 10.0 Shortened sail and came to in 14 f. Moored ship with 5 shackles on each cable
Noon 30.01 78°

PM
Bearings at anchor
right arrow xeme N 30° W
Centre of Village S 56° W
Southern Entrance S 67° E
Furled sails
Out pinnace
Down royal yards
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight

 29th September 1854, Levuka Harbour

AM
Employed watering and as requisite
Carpenters repairing ladder
Noon 30.00 – 79°

PM
Employed as before noon
Sunset up boats
Midnight 30.00 – 77°

Remarks Saturday 30th

AM
Employed watering and cleaning ship
Artificers as requisite
Noon 30.00 79°

PM Employed as before noon
Loosed small sails to dry
4.0 Unbent small sails
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight

Remarks Sunday 1st October

AM
10.0 Mustered by divisions
Noon 30.00 74°

PM
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 30.00 – 77°

Remarks Monday 2nd

AM
Employed watering
Blacking down rigging &c.
Carpenters making cases for plants
Noon 29.95 78°

PM
Employed as before noon
Sunset up boats
Midnight

Remarks Moored off Levuka Ovalau Tuesday 3rd October 1854

AM
8.0 Loosed sails
Employed watering blacking down rigging
Carpenters making cases for plants
Noon 29.97 – 77°

PM Employed as before noon
Completed water to 67 tons
Furled sails
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 30.05 – 77°

Wednesday 4th

AM
Gave one watch liberty
Employed as most requisite
Noon 30.00 – 79°

PM
Sunset up and moored boats
Liberty men returned
S
Midnight 30.05 – 75°

Thursday 5th

AM
One watch ashore on liberty
Carpenter making specimen box and repairing skylights
Noon 30.07 80°

PM
One watch on shore
Sunset liberty men returned up and moored boats
Midnight 30.30 – 77°

Friday 6th

AM
Boats away surveying
Carpenter making specimen box
Noon

Boats away surveying
Sunset moored boats
Midnight

Remarks Moored in Levuka Harbour Saturday 7th October 1854

AM
Employed cleaning ship
Boats away surveying
Noon

PM Boats away surveying
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight

Sunday 8th

AM
10.0 Mustered by divisions and Per open list
Performed Divine Service
Noon

PM
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight

Monday 9th

AM
Scrubbed hammocks and washed clothes
Carpenters repairing ladders
Noon

PM
Employed as requisite
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 30.10 – 77°

Tuesday 10th

AM
Boats away surveying
Employed making spun yarn
Sailmaker making canvas shoes for boats crews
Noon 30.00 80

PM Swing ship for deviation
Employed as before noon
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 30.02 – 78°

Remarks Moored in Levuka Harbour Wednesday 11th October 1854

AM
Boats away surveying
Employed repairing ratlines
Noon 30.00 81°

PM
Employed as before noon
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 30.00 – 79°

Thursday 12th

AM Boats away surveying
Employed making spunyarn, fitting topsail yards &c.
Sailmaker making canvas shoes for boats crews &c.
Noon 30.05 82°

PM
Employed as before noon
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 30.00 – 80°

Friday 13th

AM Boats away surveying
Scrubbed hammocks and washed clothes
Employed making mats fitting topgallant rigging &c.
Sailmaker making canvas shoes for boats crews
Noon 30.07 – 80°

PM Employed as before noon
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 30.10 – 77°

Saturday 14th

AM
Boats away surveying
Employed cleaning ship
Noon 30.08 – 80°

PM
Employed making and mending clothes
Midnight 30.13 – 80°

Remarks Moored in Levuka Harbour Ovalau Sunday 15th October 1854

AM
10.0 Mustered by divisions and read articles of war to ships company
Noon 30.10 – 81°

PM
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight

Monday 16th

AM
Down topgallant yards and lowered topgallant masts. unbent jibs. Secured foremast with [indecipherable] and tackles in jib and flying booms, unclothed bowsprit
Carpenter making saddle for dolphin striker. Sailmaker repairing sails
Noon 30.06 – 79°

PM Employed refitting ship
Artificers as before noon
Unbent fore topsail
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 30.05 – 79°

Tuesday 17th

Unbent mainsail down main yard
Employed refitting ship
Artificers as yesterday
Noon 30.02 – 77°

PM Employed as before noon
Setting the bobstays &c.
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 30.00 – 70°

Wednesday 18th

AM Employed staying foremast setting up fore rigging and refitting
Carpenter making saddle for dolphin striker
Sailmaker repairing sails
Noon

Employed as before noon
Out jib boom up main yard
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight

Remarks Moored in Levuka Harbour – Ovalau Thursday 19th October 1854

AM
Down fore yard – unbent sails
Employed refitting &c.
Sailmaker repairing sails
Boats away surveying
Noon 30.03 – 79°

PM
Employed as before noon
Sunset up boats
Midnight 30.07 – 78°

Friday 21st

AM Employed rattling down rigging and refitting
Carpenters making clothes rack
Sailmaker repairing sails
Noon 30.04 – 81°

PM
Employed as fore noon
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 30.05 – 78°

Saturday 21st

AM Employed cleaning ship
Boats away surveying
Carpenters making Log rack
Sailmaker repairing sails
Noon 30.05 – 79°

PM
Employed as before noon
Up fore yard
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 30.03 – 78°

Sunday 22nd

AM
10.0 Mustered by divisions and Performed Divine Service
Noon 30.03 – 84°

PM
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 30.03 – 78°

Remarks Moored in Levuka Harbour Ovalau Monday 23rd October 1854

AM
Boats away surveying
Employed watering and as requisite
Sailmaker repairing sails
Carpenters repairing Log Rack
Noon 30.03 – 80°

PM Employed as before noon
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight

Tuesday 24th

AM Boats away surveying
Employed rattling and blacking down rigging
Noon 30.10 – 75°

PM
Employed as before noon
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 29.95 – 77°

Wednesday 25th

AM Employed rattling and blacking down
Carpenters making clothes rack
Sailmaker repairing sails
Noon 29.92 – 79°

PM Employed as before noon
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 29.85 – 76°

Thursday 26th

AM Boats away surveying
Fidded topgallant masts
Employed staying topgallant masts and fitting topgallant backstays
Artificers as yesterday
Noon 29.95 – 77°

PM Employed as before noon
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 29.95 – 74°

Remarks Moored in Levuka Harbour Friday 27th

AM
Employed making mats &c.
Ropemaker making spun yarn
Artificers as yesterday
Noon 30.05 – 77°

PM
Employed as before noon
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight

Saturday 28th

AM
9.0 Arrived the American barque Seagou from Sydney 10 days
Employed cleaning ship
Noon 30.04.77

PM. Employed as before noon
Sunset up and moored boats
Mr Nugent (Mid.) and 2 men proceeded in the schooner Glide (Niece Master) to V’antavu in search of 2 men supposed to be runaway convicts

Sunday 29th

AM
10.0 Mustered per open list
Noon 30.05 – 80°

PM
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 30.05 – 77°

Monday 30th

AM
Employed watering ship and as requisite
Carpenters making clothes rack
Noon 30.05 78°

PM
Employed as before noon
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 30.02 – 78°

Remarks Moored in Levuka Harbour Tuesday 31st October 1854

AM
Employed watering
Carpenters making clothes rack
Noon 30.00 – 77°

PM
Employed as before noon
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 30.01 – 76°

Wednesday 1st November

AM
Employed watering and as req.
Carpenters making clothes rack
Noon :

PM Completed water to 67 tons
Bent sails
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 30.00 – 76°

Thursday 2nd

AM
Employed as most requisite
Carpenters making clothes rack
Noon 29.95 81°

PM Boats away surveying
Employed as before noon
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 29.97 – 79°

Friday 3rd

AM
9.0 Cleaned hawse and unmoored ship
Bent small sails courses topgallant and royal yards and loosed sails
Employed preparing for sea
Noon 30.06 80°

PM Employed as before noon
Furled sails in pinnace
Midnight

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Remarks Anchored in Levuka Harbour Saturday 4th November

AM
Employed cleaning ship
Loosed sails
Noon 29.96 – 83°

PM
Employed as before noon
Furled sails
Sunset up boats
Midnight 29.97 – 79°

Sunday 5th

AM
10.0 Mustered by divisions and per open list
Noon 29.95 82°

PM
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight

Monday 6th

AM
Loosed sails
Employed as most requisite
Noon 29.88 78°

PM
1.0 Furled sails
Boats away surveying
Employed as before noon
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 29.84 – 79°

Tuesday 7th

AM
Loosed sails
Employed as most requisite
11.30 Furled sails
Noon 29.85 78°

PM Employed cleaning pump wells
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 29.90 – 79°

View image | View single page

Remarks At Single Anchor in Levuka Harbour Wednesday 8th November 1854

AM
Cleaned sail bins
Aired spare small sails and awnings
Employed making mats&c
Noon. 29.91 80

PM
Employed as before noon
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight

Thursday 9th

AM
8.0 Dressed ship in honour of the Anniversary of the Birthday of His Highness the Prince of Wales
Noon Fired a general salote of 21 guns

PM
1.30 “Thacamban” Chief of Ambau came on board saloted ditto with 10 guns
Sunset moored boats
Midnight 30-00 80°

Friday 10th

AM
Boats away surveying
Employed making mats
Noon 29.95 83

PM
Employed as before noon
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 29.92 78°

Saturday 11th

AM
Boats away surveying
Employed cleaning ship
Noon 29.85 78°

PM
Employed as before noon
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight

Remarks At Single Anchor in Levuka Harbour Sunday 12th November 1854

AM
10.0 Mustered by divisions
Noon 29.80 – 82

PM
sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 29.81 – 79°

Monday 13th

AM
8.0 Loosed sails
Employed cleaning sail room and airing spare sails
Noon 29.85 85°

PM Employed as before noon
3.0 Furled sails
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 29.90 79°

Remarks Tuesday 14th November 1854

AM
6.30 Shortened in cable to 2 shackles Up boats loosed sails
7.45 Weighed and made all plain sail on starboard tack
Tacked as requisite working out
9.30 Shaped course SSE set P. log
Up [indecipherable] trimmed as requisite to light airs up courses – very heavy rain
Noon

PM 1.0 Tacked
4.0 Wore Sounded in 217 ooze
6.0 Tacked right arrow xeme Ovalau N21° W
left arrow xeme Batiki – N 71.40 W
Midnight 30.00 78°

Remarks Wednesday 15th November

AM
Aired bedding
7.0 Set port topgallant studsails
9.0 Altered course to SW. trimmed
11.40 Obs. a schooner on starboard beam
11.0 In studsails, wore, altered course to North set starboard topg’t studsails
Noon

PM 1.15 Trimmed, bent and set staysails, spanker and main trysail
3.0 Fired 2 muskets to bring schooner to, which having no effect fired a shotted 9 pr. In studsails up mainsail wore and hove to on port tack – boarded schooner and found her to be from [indecipherable]. Mr [indecipherable] on board having left Mr Nugent 12 days previous, [indecipherable] [indecipherable] Viti Levu in search of the two men who had escaped from V’antavu , and supposed to have gone [indecipherable] [indecipherable] Filled, tacked and stood for Ovalau. 5.0 Braced round on port tack. Trimmed as requisite
6 Shortened sail to topsails topgallant sails jib and spanker. Braced up on starboard tack. 8.0 Levuka entrance of reef W by N ½ N [indecipherable] view of Nalau W by N [indecipherable] WSW.

Remarks Thursday 16th November

AM 12.30 Braced round on port tack
3.30 Tacked and hove to down jib.
4.0 Xmes of Ovalau NW by N [indecipherable] W ½ S
Trimmed as requisite standing for Levuka Harbour.
7.0 Shortened sail and let go S. B. in 15 fath. Moored with 5 shackles on each cable.
Loosed small sails to dry.
Noon 30.00 82°

PM
Furled sails
Employed as most requisite
Sunset up and moored boats
North Xme N33 W
South Xme S 8 E
Centre of Levuka West
Passage S 73° E
Midnight 29.99 – 80°

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Remarks Moored in Levuka Harbour Friday 17th November 1854.

AM
Boats away surveying
Sailmaker repairing pinnace cover.
Noon

PM.
Employed as before noon
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight

Remarks Saturday 10th Nov.

AM
Mr Nugent arrived in the schooner ‘Glide’ having captured the two convicts and a whaleboat they had stolen at [indecipherable]
Boats away surveying
Employed cleaning ship
Noon 30.00 79

PM
Employed as before noon
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 30.00 80°

Remarks Sunday 19th

AM
Mustered by divisions
Noon 30.00 – 78°
PM
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 30.04 – 78°

Remarks Monday 20th

AM
Employed as most requisite
Boats away surveying
Noon 30.05 – 79°

PM
Employed as before noon
3.0 Cleaned hawse

Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight

View image | View single page

Remarks Moored in Levuka Harbour Ovalau Tuesday 21st November 1854

AM
8.0 Loosed sails
Emloyed as most requisite
11.0 Furled sails
Noon 29.90 78°

PM
Issued soap and [indecipherable] to ships company
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 29.87 – 77°

Remarks Wednesday 22nd

AM
Issued slops to ships company
Employed as most requisite
Noon 29.84 75°

PM
Employed as before noon
Sunset up and moored boats
Midnight 29.87 – 75°

Remarks Thursday 23rd

AM
8.0 Loosed sails
Employed as most requisite
Carpenters repairing ladder
Sailmaker fitting quarter deck awning
Noon 29.91 79°

PM
Employed as before noon
3.0 Furled sails
4.30 Unmoored
Sunset up boats
Midnight 29.95 – 76°

Remarks Friday 24th November 1854

AM 6.0 Weighed and made all plain sail standing out of Levuka Harbour
6.40 Hove to and discharged pilot
8.0 Tacked set middle staysails and main topsail
Employed stowing anchors cleaning cables &c
Noon 29.95 – 79°

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