September 1858: Maafu’s men massacre 30 of Ritova’s party in Church on Sunday at Natakala, Bua

aug16-bechehttp-wwwhistorynavymilacexplorationwilkes98-089-bnConsul Pritchard favoured Cakobau over Maafu,  because of the brutality of the Maafu-lead Tongan Methodist Wesleyans.  Cakobau (Thakombau) in his time, was as brutal, but by the time Pritchard arrived at Levuka, Cakobau had begun to modify his traditional behaviour;  he  had  a decade of  engagements with missionaries and traders, notably,  beche de mer trader, Mary Wallis.
Pritchard shocked at Maafu ‘s warfare: The newly -arrived Pritchard  – from the relative peace of Tahiti – reported – in shock – one example of Maafu-style Tongan warfare, this way : ‘Two wily.crafty chieftains were met face to face, each suspicious of the other, and both attempting to overreach one another. The result of their interview was that Thakombau sent a canoe, under the command of a trusty chieftain, to accompany Maafu’s expedition.
A watch over Maafu: Thakombau’s real object in sending this canoe was to have a watch over Maafu, knowing as he did that he really could not check Maafu’s plans without an open rupture, for which he was not prepared. Maafu’s object was to shelter himself under the countenance of Thakombau, until it suited his purpose to turn upon his associate. Both chieftains conceived that they had each attained their respective aims, and overreached the other.
Maafu and his followers arrived at Bua: In due course Maafu and his followers arrived at Bua, the head-quarters of Tui Bua’s district. Thence the united forces proceeded up the Mathuata coast, carrying all before them, and sending death and devastation into every Fijian hut.
Tongans a fiercesome lot: In missionary reports we read fearful stories of Fijian atrocities and treachery, while not a line is penned to record the butcheries of the favoured Tongans, whose boast it is that they are the champions of Wesleyanism in Fiji.
Surrender in Church: At a town called Natakala, Ritova’s party, worsted in a fight, took to the bush. After destroying all their yam plantations and cutting down all their cocoa-nut trees, Maafu left his Lieutenant Semisi to hunt up the fugitives. Though he could not capture them in the bush, Semisi managed to communicate with them, He promised them that if they would return to the town, submit to Maafu, and deliver up their arms, their lives should be spared. The Fijians asked for a guarantee. Semisi replied, ” Meet me in the church on Sunday morning; there, in the house of God and in His presence, our deliberations shall be sacred.”
Fiijians surrender: The Fijians, to the number of about thirty, accepted the invitation, and on Sunday morning they emerged from their hiding-places, and appeared in the church. They gave up their arms, which were placed in the centre of the building.
Tongans kill Fijians as they are ‘heathens”: Surrounded by armed Tongans, Semisi addressed them : ” You are all heathens ; you are all wicked men. You have fought against us who are propagating the religion of Tonga. You must all die.”* This speech concluded, Mafi, a Tongan, stepped from the side of Semisi, in obedience to a wave of his hand, and began tying one man’s right hand to the next one’s left, until he had completed the circle. Unarmed and entrapped, resistance was useless,  remonstrance worse than useless. And with that stoicism which not unfrequently marks the conduct of the savage when inevitable death, however horrible the manner, stares them in the face, the Fijians passively submitted to their fate.
Eyes gouged out; heads chopped off: Their hands tied, Mafi, in their presence and under the direction of Semisi, sharpened an American axe on a grindstone that was kept in readiness for the occasion. He then took up a bayonet that was fixed to a spear, and outdoing Nahash the Ammonite, deliberately gouged an eye out of each man’s head ! This done, he resumed his axe, and as the victims sat, tied hand to hand, and powerless, in the house of God, he chopped off each (head)’.
Pritchard, William T. 1866 Polynesian Reminiscences; or, Life in the South Pacific Islands. London: Chapman and Hall.

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1 May 1840: Levuka resident, David Whippy warns Wilkes of United States Exploring Expedition, to “never completely trust the Fijians”

The United States Exploring Expedition vessel, Peacock arrived on 1 May and the scientists assigned to it, including Agate, returned to their assigned berthing. Three days later the squadron left for the Fiji Islands.
David Whippy meets the Americans: “On arriving at Ovalu Island they were met by David Whippy, a Nantucket sailor who had settled there. Whippy proved himself useful, acting as interpreter and advisor on local customs. An important piece of advice he offered was to never completely trust the Fijians”.
Missionaries warn of stories of treachery and murder: “Both Whippy and the local missionaries told stories of treachery and murder among the island’s cannibal population. In response, Wilkes issued orders for extra care when in contact with the islanders. Landing parties could only leave the ships when absolutely necessary and officers should be armed.”
Department Of The Navy — Naval Historical Center The Alfred Agate Collection: The United States Exploring Expedition (Porpoise, Flying Fish, Vincennes Peacock) , 1838-1842 http://www.history.navy.mil/ac/exploration/wilkes/wilkes14.html Accessed 16 August 2008

1840: Fijians at Rewa see no trade value in alcohol or salted foods; but do want tobacco

Leaving the Vincennes at (Levuka) Ovolau, the Peacock sailed for the island of VITI-LEVU; and on the 16th, (May 1840) reached the anchorage about six miles below the town of Rewa. They offered goods for trade, but tobacco was the only good wanted, and demand was mild:

Trade goods wanted at Rewa: “Salt is readily obtained from sea-water, but the Feejeeans use very little; and they uniformly manifested dislike on tasting our salted provisions”.

Tobacco wanted: “Spirituous liquors do not meet with more favour, although tobacco in one locality was making some slight progress”.

Cooking – Fijians use earthen pots, not hot stones: “Cooking is not, as with the Polynesians, conducted exclusively by the use of heated stones, and in the open air ; but articles of food are steamed rather than boiled, in earthen pots.

Yams the prime food: “Yams constitute the principal support of the population ; and are kept for months in elevated storehouses: a paste is likewise prepared from them which resembles the fermented bread-fruit of Taheiti, and in like manner ” is deposited in the ground.”

Warfare, but not over food: “The Feejeeans have besides a variety of compound dishes. They dwell in the midst of abundance ; and it has been truly remarked of them, that ” no people in the South Seas could live more comfortably and happily, but for their continual treachery towards each other.”

1840: Levuka Chief offers gifts of women United States Exploring Expedition finds refusal hard as gifts refused, are “destroyed”

“This custom of the country may not be so easily avoided; for as gifts when refused are destroyed, in the case of the present of a wife, considerations of humanity will place a resident stranger in a dilemma.

Clash of cultures: “European ideas’ of ” loyalty ” make but a slight approach to the deep feeling entertained by the Feejeeans towards their chiefs. In this the women appear even to exceed the men; and their devotion to their chiefs was said to be so entire, ” that they regard it as an honour to receive death from their hands…No point of difference from the Polynesians was so striking as this political change”.
The Races Of Man; By Charles Pickering, M.D., Member Of The United States Exploring Expedition.